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     THE GRAND AYATULLAH, AS-SAYYID ABDUL-KARIM AL-MUSAWI AL-ARDEBILI

His birth and up bringing

The honorable grand Ayatullah, As-Sayyid Al-Musawi Al-Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) was born on the 13th of the month of Rajab in the year 1344 A.H. conformed with the year 1926 A.D. in Ardebil city and he belongs to an ancient and a very religious family. His father was the late Sayyid Abdul-Rahim who was a great Islamic scholar and his mother was one of the pure descendants of Imam Ali (A.S) known as “Alawi” who died in the year 1928, so he was brought up under the care of his elder sister of the same mother and father. Since his childhood he has read about his great outstanding future ability. Thus, his orphanage days played a positive role in his undertakings and perfection, the honorable Sayyid himself hereby enumerates his childhood account of what he had seen in his dream saying: “Indeed when I was a child I had yearning desire to see and meet with Imam Alhujja Ibn Hasan (‘A) (Imam Mahdi). For this purpose I was practicing all the necessary religious duties mentioned in books (of worship) concerning how to meet Imam Zaman (‘A); I also practiced the recommendable acts for that until I saw him (‘A) in a dream, then I threw myself into his arms for embracement like the children do to their fathers, then I immediately threw myself to his feet and kissed them, then I begged him that he should give me something as a present from him. There was nothing except that he removed his ring (Al-Fairuj) from his noble finger and put it in my finger. When I informed my father about the story of my dream he said: “As from now onward I will entertain no fear over you again because you are now under the special care and protection of Imam Al-Asr wal Zaman (‘A) (Imam Mahdi).” (May Allah hasten his reappearance).

Commencement of Theological Studies in SeminarySchool

His Excellency grand Ayatullah As-Sayyid Al-Musawi Al-Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) started his studies at the age of six when he jointed the “Kutatib” (the Qur’anic elementary school) to learn the Qur’an and at that time he learned under his two teachers. He also studied (a dissertation on the practical duties of Islam “Risalatul-Amaliyya”, “Tembihul-Gafilin” (awakening the heedless), “Nasabul-Sibyan”, “Abwabul-Janan”, “Majalisul-Muttaqin” (class sessions for the pious), “Tarikhul-Mu’jam”, Ad-Durrul-Nadir, Tarikhul- Wassaf, Mathematics, Persian literature and some other books.

Then he started the studying of Arabic language in the year 1939 A.D, and for the continuation of his theological studies, he joined a school called Al-MollaIbrahimAl-IlmiyyaSchool at Ardebil city in the year 1940 A.D. At that time there were only 3 schools for religious studies, these schools were Al-Mirza Ali Akbar which was turned to a primary school and the As-Salihiyya school and which later became a refuge centre for the immigrants of Qafqaz and there was no any other school left except Al-Molla Ibrahim school in which there were only 4 students left then, and because of the difficult condition at that time, there was no any encouragement or sponsorship for theological studies in the Seminary schools but all the same in this hard condition, Sayyid continued his studies and finished the syllabus of that school – there he studied the following:- “Jamiul-Muqaddimat” (Combined Basic studies), “As-Suyuti”, “Al-Jami”, “Al-Mutawwal”, “Hashiyyatul-Molla Abdullahi”, “Ash-Shamsiyya” and “Al-Mu’alimu wal Sharai’i” and that was in the year 1943 A.D.

There was an increasing desire in youths for Islamic studies so during the flight of Rida Pahlavi there were many of them who enrolled in Ibrahim’s school. The joining of these youths and fresh students into Molla Ibrahim’s school greatly encouraged As-Sayyid Al-Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) so, he began to teach them some introductory lessons like – Surf, “Nahw” (Arabic grammar and literature) and “Mantiq” (Logic) he did not suffice himself with these but went further; being filled with the urge and desire to fill the educational vacuum created by the 20 years dictatorial rule of Rida Khan. He was holding preaching and guidance sessions, and delivering lectures and sermons in Ardebil city and in other nearby cities and towns.

His Migration to Qom

 

His Excellency the grand Aytullahi Sayyid Al-Musawi Al-Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) migrated to the holy city of Qom in the month of Ramadan in the year 1943 A.D so as to continue his higher studies (Sutuhu Aaliyya) so he resided in Faidhiyya school for 3 years. During this period of time, he studied under some great professors. For example he studied “Al-Makasib” and the 1st volume of “Al-Kifaya” under Ayatullahi Uzma Sayyid Muhammad Rida Al-Kalba Yakani (May his soul rest in peace), at the same time he was also learning “Al-Ba’i and Makasib”, the 2nd volume of “Al-Kifaya” and “Sharh Al-Hidaya” of Maibadi under the grand Ayatullah Al-Hajj As-Sayyid Ahmad Al-Khunsari (May his soul rest in peace), he studied “Ar-Rasaail” under both Ayatullahi Al-Hajj Ash-Sheikh Murtada Al-Hairy and Ayatullahi As-Sultani (May their souls rest in peace). He studied “Al-Manzuma” under Ayatullahi Al-Hajj Al-Mirza Mahdi Al-Manzandarani (May his soul rest in peace) and Al-Asfar from Ayatullahi As-Sayyid Muhammad Husain At-Tabataba’i (May his soul rest in peace).

In addition to that, our honourable Sayyid did not spare any effort in promoting and spreading religious teachings, so alongside with his studies he used to hold preaching and guidance sessions especially during the propagation seasons when he used to deliver very moving and stirring sermons that awoken minds and ignited emotions.

Situations in Iran in those years were generally not peaceful and unstable, so the holy city of Qom was also included. This was as a result of foreign wars imposed on Iran which continued for a long time, but Najaf at time maintained its former peace and stability and its educationally conducive atmosphere. Since our Sayyid Al-Ardebili was searching for a peaceful environment where he could fetch water to quench his thirst for knowledge, he had no option except to go to the Holy city of Najaf.

His Migration to An-Najaf Al-Ashraf

 

As-Sayyid Al-Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) had determined to migrate to the holy city of Najaf for that, he and the late Sheikh Abul-Fadl Halal Zaada Ardebili set out on the 1st of the month of Zil-Hijja in the year 1364 A.H. from the holy city of Qom secretly because of the legal law that prevented people from traveling through Khoram Shahar and Shatil-Arab despite that, both of them were able to enter into the city of Basra in Iraq, by so doing the honourable Sayyid had demonstrated a special kind of divine support which will be too long to explain here even though it is nice to hear it. He had crossed the Abbasid cities and the town of Dawaniyya and at long last with the divine grace he arrived at the school of Sayyid Kazim Al-Yazdi (May his soul rest in peace) in Najaf Ashraf in the evening of 7th Zil-Hijja of that year.

Sayyid regarded his stay in Najaf which was peaceful, stable and conducive for studies and researches, as the best days of his studies therefore he remained there and studied under some great Islamic scholars and he also engaged upon researches on intellectual issues that arose in the Seminary lessons and he was also writing down the lessons of some of these great Theologian scholars in the Seminary School.

His educational activities in Najaf Ashraf

 

In the holy city of Najaf, the city of knowledge and piety, the city of Amirul-Mu’minin (A.S) is the location of Seminary school. Its foundation can be traced back to over one thousand years ago and in that spiritual atmosphere, the honourable grand Ayatullahi Sayyid Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) benefited from great personalities and dignitaries (in respect of knowledge) who were very close to Maraji’i of some groups of people (the highest religious authority whom people return to in their religious affairs) in the holy city of Najaf, for example, under the grand Ayatullahi Sayyid Khu’i he studied lessons like “Mabahithi-Qat’i wal-Zann wal-Baraa’a”, “Ishtigal” and some lessons in Alfaz, but in the field of Fiqh he studied chapters of prayer “Salla” and its times and “Qibla”, dressing of one who prayers and the place for prayers, things that validate prayers and their conditions up to the end of the chapter of Makasib (Commercial) he also studied Tahara (Purification) up to Wudu’i (Ablution) under the grand Ayatullahi As-Sayyid Hakim (May his soul rest in peace), he also studied lessons on Ijtihad and Taqlid under the grand Ayatullahi As-Sayyid Al-Milani (May his soul rest in peace), he studied lessons on Ba’i As-Sabii (transaction of a child) under the grand Ayatullahi Ash-Sheikh Muhammad Kazim Shirazi, like he also studied some part of the book Al-‘Urwa under the grand Ayatullahi Ash-Sheikh Muhammad Kazim Aali Yasin, he also studied philosophy (Falsafa) from the beginning of Tabi’iyat up to the end of Manzumma under Ustaz Ash-Sheikh Sadr Al-Badikubi (May Allah have mercy on him) in addition to that, he was writing down lessons of some grand Ayatullahi like Sayyid Al-Khu’i, Sayyid Al-Milani and Sayyid Hakim (May their souls rest in peace).

The staying of Sayyid Al-Ardebili in the holy city of Najaf has been of great benefit, for it had left behind ripped fruits of his personal intellectual and educational merits. All these merits can be credited to the great lecturers and supervisors of the seminary schools in the holy city of Najaf at that time who were in fact the pillars of “Fiqh and Usul” jurisprudence and fundamental principles of jurisprudence. We see that it is pertinent here to mention the expression of the grand Ayatullahi Sayyid Khu’i when he said he regretted seriously about the short period of time which three students who had left Qom for Najaf had stayed with him and among those three was our Sayyid Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life).

Return to Iran

 

While Sayyid Al-Ardebili was busy with his studies in the holy city of Najaf there came suddenly a letter came from Iran informing him of his father’s ill-health, this matter made him grieved and worried so much that he was forced to leave Iraq and returned to Iran, so he retuned to Iran in the year 1948 A.D and put up in Faidhiyya school at the holy city of Qom and he had left all his possessions in the holy city of Najaf hoping to return back at the earliest possible time but things were against his wishes so he was unable to go back to Najaf for the second time to continue his studies. After he was ascertained that his father had be come well, he started participating in the advanced lessons in Figh “Bahth Kharij” under the great Ayatullahi Brujedi and advanced Usul under Ayatullahi Damad (May Allah have mercy on them) and Philosophy under Allama Tabataba’i and the lessons of Moral Ethics “Akhlaq” under the grand Ayatullahi Sayyid Al-Khumeini (May Allah have mercy on him) and he also attended the special lessons in fiqh under the grand Ayatullahi, As-Sayyid Gulpagani and Ayatullahi Ash-Sheikh Murtada Hairii and the grand Ayatullahi As-Sayyid Ahmad khunari (May their souls rest in peace).

Indeed teaching has been the most significant and the most ancient traditions of the seminary school which has an active impact in enhancing intellectual spirit and preparing ground for training students of seminary schools. In following this good tradition, our honourable Sayyid started teaching Rasaa’il, Makasib, Kifaya and Manzumma to the qualified capable students and in most cases lessons were not opened to every one and besides that he used to deliver his personal advanced lessons in Fiqh and Usul to some interested and qualified students.

As-Sayyid Al-Ardebili did not limit his activities in Qom to learning and teaching only but he had some other activities beside them and they are as follows:

1- Qur’anic activities

Qur’anic lessons and exegesis was one of the activities our honourable Sayyid Ardebili practiced during his stay in Qom, it is used to be held twice in a week and some group of eminent personalities used to attend it. These classes which were well organized continued through out his period of stay in Qum and had never stopped even after his migration but the person who represented him developed it and it is still continued up till today. He had extended his Qur’anic classes to Ardebil and Tehran. His Qur’anic researches, teachings of Qur’anic sciences and exegesis are regarded as his most prominent activities which are now mostly written down in forms of articles in magazines and in different types of other publications today.

2- Publication of Magazine

As-Sayyid (May Allah prolong his life) while staying in Qom had joined hand with other prominent scholars of the seminary school for the first time to produce a Magazine called “Maktaba Islam” (Islamic school), fortunately it received unique circulation among the people, since he is one of the founder of this Magazine, it was used to publish his articles and we can hereby indicate some chains of his articles in it like: “Ad-Din min wajhatu nazaril Qur’an” (Religion in the view point of Qur’an), and other articles like “Qur’an aw Ash-Shamsulati lan tagib” (Qur’an, The Sun that never sets) and “Toofani Nuh” (Noah’s flood). Indeed As-Sayyid continued to support the Magazine for nine times (issues or productions) then his support stopped immediately after he migrated from the holy city of Qom.

3. His propagation activities

Indeed it is not a hidden fact that publication and propagation of religious issues and divine laws are regarded as the most important duties of active Islamic scholars, on this basis Sayyid used to make use of the seminary school holidays to travel to the remote parts of the country to discharge the task of preaching and guiding (people) in different towns.

His return to Ardebil

 

Sayyid’s condition of health had greatly worsened in the month of Ramadan 1959 A.D. as a result of his increasing intellectual, missionary and educational activities, for this he was advised by the doctors to make a change of environment and to also reduce the pressure of work, for this he departed from Qom in 1960 A.D. and headed towards Ardebil to spend his summer holiday there. So, he setup preaching and guidance sessions in the mosque of the late Al-Hajj Sayyid Salih, then he started repairing and rebuilding the school of Molla Ibrahim that was in the vicinity of the mosque, despite his wish to return back to Qom after the end of the Summer season, he remained there temporarily up till the end of the year in response to the insistence of the clergy men and the people of Ardebil, and because of some of the uncompleted works he was later forced to remain there up to the year 1968 A.D. It is rather important here that we should mention some of his activities during that time:

1- Educational activities

A great number of students from the seminary school of the holy city of Qom migrated to Ardebil where Sayyid was staying so that they could study the higher intermediate studies (Sutuhu Aliya) under him and books like: Rasaa’il, Makaasib, and Kifaya and then he started giving lessons on the advanced level (Bahth Kharij) in Fiqh and Usul. As-Sayyid (May Allah protect him) also revived others setups like teaching and administration, he also restored the building of Seminary School and other institutions and took care of the student’s expenses and their pock-money, also he used to send these students to the villages and rural areas to solve the peoples problems according to their abilities.

2- Propagation

He never stopped preaching to (people) through out this period of time, he used to climb the pulpit after the two prayers of Magrib and Isha’i and deliver his lectures on guidance and would read Qur’an and make its explanation and its commentary. In a similar way he conducted his weekly sessions which are held in the houses of the indigenes of the town.

3- Economic activities

Since the city of Ardebil was among the deprived cities and the majority of its inhabitants are poor, our Sayyid attached great importance to the affairs of the weak and poor so, he decided to fight against poverty by helping the deprived and after series of investigations and studies about the area he appointed some few people whose tasks were collection of voluntary alms and expenses and in this regard they agreed and planned to build an establishment or factory which aimed at teaching the poor therein, hand craft and selling their products in the markets and then returning some portion of the profits to them.

That company began to grow little by little and later served as a source of great material and financial assistance to the poor and the deprived people of Ardebil.

4- Writing of the Book “Jamalul-Abha.”

The missionaries of the Baha’I 1 school of thought used to frequent the city of Ardebil very much especially when the weather is moderately favourable and mild during the summer season. The reasons of this of course can be traced back to some historical back ground which unfortunately we cannot be mentioned here for lack of space.

It happened that most of those who attended their sessions and gatherings were youths and (seminary) students, so some of them used to contact or communicate with the grand Ayatullahi Sayyid Ardebili (May Allah prolong his life) to ask him concerning what the “Baha’i (adherents of Baha’i sects) have said in their meetings, about their misleading faith; seeking for suitable answers from the Honourable Sayyid. But at that time Sayyid used to urge them to continue listening to them and noting their evidences and proofs for a while without refuting them. In order to arrange the questions and answers about this sect, it was not necessary to go far to fetch the origin of Baha’i and knowing their official sources because they owned a library in Ardebil which makes it possible to known their thoughts and creeds so much that at the end it was possible to gather these questions and answers and observations concerning the Baha’i sect so his Excellency Sayyid Ardebili wrote a book titled “Jamalul-Abha” and 10,000 copies of it were printed and all these copies were finished from the markets. This book had equipped the youths with an intellectual weapon with which they disproved and repelled the ambiguities of the Baha’iyya sects.

His staying and his activities inTehran

 

There was serious pressure which confronted the honourable Sayyid that forced him to leave Ardebil for Tehran so, his honourable entered Tehran in summer in the year 1968 A.D, therein circumstances made it possible for him to become the “Imam” leader of the congregational prayer in the Mosque of Amirul-Mu’minin (A.S) and in the same way, he transferred his family to Tehran despite the opposition of his followers and the people of his town to his migration.

In addition to his leading congregational prayers and sermons in Amirul-Mu’minin’s mosque, he also commenced the teaching of advanced fiqh in the chapter of Khums in his advanced lessons (Bahth Kharij) and also volume one of Asfar, in addition to that he organized some series of researches on Philosophy for his capable students, then he engaged in researches and studies in Qur’anic sciences in this regard, many scholars and prominent figures of Seminary school supported him and taking into consideration that a deep-rooted research in Qur’anic sciences need a suitable and big library, he hastened to establish library for this purpose so that the neighbours of the Amirul-mu’minin mosque could benefit from it in their researches. In addition to all these, he used to hold his continuous and well-arranged classes of Tafsir after the two prayers of Magrib and Isha’i in the aforementioned mosque.

It had become necessary to build a centre with which to fight the group of apostasy that were common at that time and to also discuss issues concerning religious laws and creeds, it was seen to be a good idea so that sessions and lessons concerning religious awareness could be held there in an effective way. In this regard, his honourable built a mosque and a centre named “Tauheed Centre” where different activities and lessons that aimed at discussing religious issues and creeds through experts and some of his qualified companions. At the same time, his honourable also built other schools in Tehran for the intermediate studies and others for introductory studies which are still functioning up till today and all these centres were being financed by the Humanitarian Foundation called “Mu’asasatu Amirul-Mu’minin Al-Khairiyat” (Humanitarian Foundation of Aminrul-Mu’minin) which we shall later talk about. God willing.

1- His educational and cultural activities

Indeed the staying of his Excellency in Tehran was full of different activities mainly on two areas, educational and cultural activities, so he taught Fiqh and Usul in his advanced classes (Bahth Kharij) and he also thought volume one of Manzumma to the Seminary students and others from Universities and he also thought “Usulul-Falsafa” (the basis of Philosophy), “Silsilatu Abhathu Takamil” (some series of supplementary studies), “Al-Falsafa wat-Tarikh” (Philosophy and history), and other lessons on philosophy which are important and necessary to the University students also, he held some sessions which attach importance to Tafsirul-Qur’an, his lessons and speeches concerning the basis of philosophy. He carried out researches in Qur’anic sciences with some thinkers who held different ideologies with him, and the scope of this activities had become widened for this they became very useful to many youths and thinkers.

In the first year of the Islamic government Sayyid’s intellectual and cultural practices took new dimensions, among them was writing down some customary laws (Qanunun-Juz’iyya) and the civil law and then making comparison to see its conformity with the Sharia law and jurisprudence. And Sayyid (May Allah protects him) needed a lot of time to accomplish such a hard task of writing the law especially when we realized fully that most of the enacted laws in the past particularly “Qawanin juziyiyya” the customary law was taken from Europe so a committee of learned clergymen and lawyers was formed to compose a new law that was in conformity with the Islamic law, thus this was accomplished with the assistance of his companions, eminent scholars and thinkers.

On the other side what was written on the book of justice was not suitable to the conditions of the present day society. So this was the greatest problem which was facing the judicial, therefore the honourable Sayyid with a view to solving this problem introduced a new judicial course in his teaching advanced level students (Bahth Kharij). This was in the contemporary of the book “Fiqhul-Qada’a” (Judicial Jurisprudence) which contained new issues that were not treated in former books of jurisprudence. His Excellency had thoroughly dealt with this issue in his researches and teaching sessions because its manifestation in the present-day society demanded that one should know its law from the Islamic point of view.

His last educational activity was his intellectual and jurisprudent researches (Bahth Ilmiyya and Fiqhiyya) concerning economical matters, a task which arose from the side of problems of financial exchange and transactions which people were then facing in the country and the economic system that was governing it. All these put together was among the most important social needs of the people and before this time these types of issues were not put forward. So his Excellency combined this issue with his extremely vast researches and comparative studies in Capitalist economic system, the Socialist economic system and lastly the Islamic economic system and with scholastic efficiency and talent he completely solved each and every one of them after a while.

2- Establishing of Amirul-Mu’minin Humanitarian Foundation

His Excellency together with some of his companions established the afore-mentioned foundation in 1969 A.D. so that it could control, manage or supervise all cultural activities. Thanks to Allah that its services are still in function up to the present day. We have achieved from its blessings the following:-

a. Building of three Mosques.

b. Cultural and educational centres.

c. Five secondary schools.

d. One University.

All of them run programmes which are consistent with the present day needs.

Second migration to Qom.

 

After his stay in Tehran our honourable Sayyid returned to Qum in the year 1989 A.D. and started the following activities:

1- Lecturing, researches and scientific analyses

Since the beginning of his stay in Qum his Excellency started advanced teachings in Fiqh and Usul in his advanced level classes. Within the period of his of stay up to the year 2000 A.D. he had taught a complete course in advanced “Usul” and “Fiqhul-Juz’i lil-Islam” (Islamic customary jurisprudence) and this includes judicial law “Hudud” (Islamic legal punishment) “Qisas” (Retaliation), “Diyat” (Blood money) “Shahadat” (Witness or bearing testimony) and also topics like “Kitabul-Mudaraba. During the Seminary school holiday he taught jurisprudent lessons like “Kitabul-Sharaqa” (chapter of partnership), lessons in Ijtihad, “Taqlid” (following a cerebrated scholar), “Ta’min” (Insurance or Security), “Riba” (Usury) “Irtidad” (Apostasy). His Excellency is presently busy teaching the chapter “Baiy’i” (Transaction of buying and selling)

2- Foundation and management of SheikhMufidUniversity “Darul-Ilm” for the studying of Humanities or Human Sciences

Students of the seminary schools were facing many academic problems of defects in their studies the honourable Sayyid had thought greatly over the issue and was looking for way to solve it. One of the must important reasons for these defects was the continuation on the old syllabus of the Theological centre which had neither been changed nor developed for we have not come across. Laws in those old texts that is linked to modern development which are manifested in the individual and the societal lives or at least it had no been pursued as it supposed, for example to have a full and adequate studies on the cognizance of laws particularly state laws like legal punishment, sea rights and regulations, rights of the cities under the influence of a country, “Al-Barutuculat” (Protocols) i.e. (official etiquette or system of rules governing formal occasions like meetings between governments and diplomats) Bilateral relations (between nations), Nationalism, and also economical issues such as Financial or currency exchange, Bank interests, “Ta’min” (Insurance or Security) of money, wealth etc.

Researches and jurisprudent studies of modern social establishments such as “Sultat-Athalatha” (three authorities i.e. the three aspects of the government; the executive, the legislative and the judicial); so was the modern knowledge like sociology, philosophy and modern “Kalam” (Scholastic theology), etc. In spite of the fact that the Islamic societies are in ardent need of these knowledge and sciences, still there are wide gaps which have to be filled up in these fields. This is on one side, on the other side, the Islamic societies were greatly in need of people who are specialists and experts and at the same time religiously committed and are fully educated in modern education in addition to their knowledge of theological sciences. Similarly they should be people who possess full ability to repel or give answers to modern and current issues that may arise and give explanations from the Islamic point of view to solve the problems that have been ascribed to it (i.e. Islam).

In order to solve all these problems his Excellency, since he arrived in Qum for the second time, decided to establish a Foundation called “SheikhMufidUniversity for Humanity studies (Darul - Ilm).

The original aim of establishing this University was to teach the knowledge which Islam has urged us to study, i.e. Human sciences though Islamic views are put side by side with the views of other (non-Islamic) schools for the purpose of study and research.

At the moment, the following subjects are being studied in the University; branches of laws, economics, philosophy and Qur’anic sciences up to the standard of Master degrees and in the near future the level will be up to Doctorate degrees Insha Allah Ta’ala. In addition to that, more branches of studies will be included in the syllabus or curriculum. At the moment over 600 undergraduates are engaged in different branches of studies in this University in accordance with the country’s educational conditions and stipulations for higher institutes. All these are in addition to their studies of the higher theological sciences.

Conditions for admitting students to this educational centre are as follows:-

1- Completion of the study of “Sharh Lumma” and “Usul Mazaffa.”

2- Having Diploma certificate.

3- Passing the general entrance examination that qualifies one for entering University.

4- In addition to this, university students who agree to combine theological studies of the Seminary school with their university studies are also qualified to apply.

His Books

1- Fiqhul-Qadaa (Judicial jurisprudence), one volume - (published).

2- Fiqhul-Hudud wa Ta’azirat (Legal punishments), one volume - (published).

3- Fiqh Qisas (Retaliation), one volume - (published).

4- Fiqh Diyat (Blood money), one volume - (published).

5- Fiqh Shariqat wa Ta’min, one volume - (published).

6- Fiqh Madharaba (Business partnership), (under publication).

7- Fiqh Shahadat, - (printed).

8- Explanatory notes on Khiyarat and Makasib, - (printed).

9- Lesson notes “Taqrirrat” from the class sessions of Sayyid Hakim and Sayyid Khu’i (May their souls rest in peace) in Fiqh and Usul, - (printed).

10- Dauratul-Kamil (A complete course) in Usul-Fiqh, - (printed).

11- Rasaail-Fiqhiyya which comprises studies in Ribaa Tanqihul-Sanaai, Zibhatu-Ahlil-Kitab (the slaughtering of the Christian and Jews), - (printed).

12- Maqalat (Articles) in Qur’anic exegesis.

13- Al-Akhlaq (Ethics) which he had delivered at the MufidUniversity, - (printed).

14- Four voumes of Iqtisad (economics), - (printed.

15- Dauratul-Kamil (complete course) in Islamic Economics in the light of Qur’an and Sunna, - (printed).

16- Jamal Abha (in repelling Bahai sect), one volume – (published).

17- Risalatul-Amaliyya in Persian language - (published).

18- Nahju-Rishad (Risalatul-Amaliyya) in Arabic language, - (published).

19- Manasikil Hajj wal-Umra in Persian language, - (published.

20- Manasikil Hajj in Arabic language, - (published).

21- Istiftaat (Questions and answers on religion and legal laws) in Persian language, - (published).

1. It was a religion innovated by Ali Muhammad Babu 150 years ago when he claimed to be a prophet, then he was killed and after him Abdul-Baha’i who was one of his students came and he also claimed to be a Prophet for this his sect was named Baha’iyya